What Causes Wrinkles?

There is nothing bad in age changes in the skin and body – while in a healthy person they occur gradually, reflecting, among other things, changes in metabolism and the work of internal organs. The processes that are typically associated with aging, such as loss of firmness and pigmentation, can also occur for some external reasons. Our body works every day to fulfill its functions.

How are wrinkles formed?

Wrinkles appear for a variety of reasons. For example, mimic – due to active facial expressions when we frown, squint, or laugh. As a result of the work of muscles on the skin, a hall is formed, which eventually turns into a wrinkle. Neck wrinkles can appear from an improper sleeping position. With a sharp decrease in weight, especially if you have recovered before that, the skin may simply not have time to contract – then sagging and wrinkles also appear. Various diseases, hormonal disorders, smoking, insufficient moisture, exposure to ultraviolet radiation affect the skin condition; the main age-related factor in the appearance of wrinkles is a decrease in the production of collagen and elastin, which are responsible for the smoothness of the skin and complexion.

How to deal with them?

The benefits of many ingredients in anti-aging cosmetics are not scientifically proven, and they tend to have minimal or no effect. Only a few ingredients have been proven effective, meaning they actually make the skin smoother. For example, peptides (short protein molecules) in creams or injections are one of the safest ways to reduce the number and depth of wrinkles.


The main age-related factor in the appearance of wrinkles is a decrease in the production of collagen and elastin, which are responsible for the smoothness of the skin and complexion.

Another option is retinoid products. These are biologically active forms of vitamin A that accelerate the process of cell renewal in the connective tissue. Retinoids are part of anti-aging creams and serums, which are used in courses; when using them, side effects are not excluded – irritation, flaking, increased skin sensitivity. Polyphenols – powerful plant antioxidants – can also help reduce fine wrinkles by protecting the skin from free radicals that damage skin cells.

Why do sunspots appear?

Pigmentation is a consequence of the increased production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. A number of factors contribute to this “staining”: from heredity and exposure to the sun to problems with internal organs, skin injuries, and taking hormonal drugs. Before trying to remove a dark spot, it is important to understand the reason for its appearance, otherwise, the effect of the procedure may be very short or even absent. Natalia Novitskaya explains that each phototype has its own resource of being in the sun without a reaction from melanocytes, cells that produce melanin. For example, for a person with the first phototype, that is, white skin and red hair, this resource will last for five minutes, and with the second phototype (dark hair and a little darker skin) – for ten. After that, skin cells begin to produce melanin (and if it does not cope with protection, then a sunburn occurs).

What causes the skin to become flabby?

Disruption of metabolic processes decreased production of hyaluronic acid, which is involved in skin hydration, and constant stress are common reasons why skin looks flabby. The growth of elastin and collagen fibers slows down, and tissues do not have time to recover. By warming up the dermis, laser and photo procedures stimulate fibroblasts (connective tissue cells), and the production of collagen and elastin is enhanced. Injections of hyaluronic acid fillers or fillers can also reduce the laxity or appearance of a fold (such as a nasolabial fold), but they won’t change the core of the process. There are exercises that train the muscles of the face – they give a good effect, but they will have to be performed regularly.

Why does the skin get rough?

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation and free radicals damage the nucleus and structure of skin cells. The latter lose their ability to regenerate and exfoliate – and horny masses begin to accumulate on the surface. Peels with alpha-hydroxy acids (glycolic, apple, citric, tartaric) contained in fruits and berries provide a slight exfoliating effect and remove dead skin cells. We recommend having fruit acid exfoliators at home and occasionally doing professional peels in salons.

Anastasia Fetter

Anastasia Fetter